This is the third from the south of the western tier of towns in the county, and is township 3, in range 9, of the Holland Company survey. It derived ists name form the principal stream, which is said to be an Indian term signifying "walking slowly". As originally erected from Little Valley, Jan 20, 1823, the town embraced the four lower townships in range 9, but was reduced to its present limits--22,846 acres--by the foundation of Randolph on its south, Feb 21, 1826, and Leon on its north, April 24, 1832. It now lies in the form of a square, containing 64 equal lots of land, whose surface is varied from a flat along the Connewango to hilly uplands in the north and the east.
The Connewango Creek has its source in Chautaugua County and in the towns of New Albion, Dayton and Leon in Cattaraugus County. It enters this town from the former county near the northwest corner, then flows southeast to within a mile of the southern line of the town, west of the centre, where, after taking the waters of the Little Connewango (which flows from the southeast), it takes a southwestern course, passing out of the town at its southwest corner, and emptying into the Allegany near Warren, PA. It is a deep, dark sluggish stream, with scarcely a perceptible motion, and has been inappropriately named. It affords little water-power, but formerly abounded with all kinds of fish, and is yet stocked with the common varieties.
Elm Creek rises in town on lot 14, and has a general southerly course into the town of Randolph, where it empties into the Little Connewango. Its name was suggested by the elm trees growing on its banks. It was formerly a good mill-stream, and much employed to operate machinery, but lately has been but little used for this purpose.
Clear and Mill Creeks flow from the northern part of the town to lot 62, where they empty into the Connewango. These and other brooks in town afford good natural drainage. On the uplands the soil varies form a rather stiff clay to a gravelly loam, and on the flats is chiefly the latter. Its productive power is equal to any in the county, and Connewango ranks well as an agricultural town.
Roads and Railroads
In 1823 there was hardly what might be called a road, except the Mayville or old Chautaqua road, which extended through the north part of the town, in an east and west direction. That year all old roads were resurveyed, and many new ones laid out. There are now fifty-two road districts, and sixty-five miles of highway. Most of the roads are in good condition, although yet susceptible of improvement. The Atlantic and Great Western Railroad runs through the southern part of the town a distance of 3.38 miles, and the Buffalo and Southwestern Railroad enters the town a little below Old's Corners, and passes down the valley of the Connewango, having 5.37 miles of track in town. The railroads make communication easy, and give the people good shipping facilities.