The town of Randolph was formed from Connewango, February 1, 1826. It was named after Randolph, Vermont. A part of South Valley was taken off in 1847. It lies on the west border of the county, south of the center. The surface is a undulating and hilly upland. The highest peaks are about 400 feet above the valleys. Little Connewango Creek is the principal stream. A sulphur spring is found 1/2 mile north of East Randolph.
Randolph , on Little Connewango Creek, in 1863 contained 3 churches, a sawmill, and about 600 inhabitants.
East Randolph , in the northeast corner contained 2 churches, a gristmill, a sawmill, a furnace, machine shop, tannery and about 700 inhabitants. Randolph Academy is situated about midway between the two villages.
The first settlement was made at Randolph Village, in 1820, by Edmund Fuller, from Oneida County . The first child born was James Fuller, in June 1822. The first death was that of Zalmon Smith, June 17, 1824, while at work on the mills of Chuncey C Helms. The first marriages were the daughters of Thomas Harvey, who in a double wedding, married David Salisbury and Clement Russell.
The first school was taught by Sally Morton, in 1822. Thomas Harvey erected the first sawmill in 1823. Benjamin Clark kept the first inn, in 1823. Chauncey Helms started the first gristmill in 1826; and Jonathon Wood, the first carding and cloth mill, in 1827.
The Chamberlain Institute and Female College, a Methodist school, which closed after a fire was located in Randolph. The site of the Chamberlain Institute is now the home of Randolph High School.
The first church was formed in 1823.