Township 4, range 8, of the Holland Land Company's Survey, has been known as New Albion since its erection from Little Valley, Feb. 23, 1830. It received its name from Albion, in Orleans County, the former home of some of the settlers of the town. The area embraced in the present bounds is 22,988 acres of hilly upland and small valleys along the water-courses. The latter were formerly heavily timbered with hemlock and the common hard woods, and were the last settled. Through the centre of the town northward extends a plateau, upon which were fine groves of maple and beech. About one-third of the town is yet covered with timber.
The town is well watered in the southwest and the west by tributaries of Connewango Creek; in the east and the north by small streams flowing into Cattaraugus Creek, which makes a bend into the town in its course westward; and by a number of springs, furnishing excellent water. Good natural drainage is afforded by the channels of these streams, and by the many vales leading towards the Cattaraugus and the Connewango.
The soil on the uplands is a clayey loam, becoming more or less mixed with gravel towards the valleys, where it is mostly a sandy or a gravelly loam. The soil throughout is considered fertile, and is especially favorable for the production of grass; and dairying forms the chief interest or the inhabitants.
EARLY LAND-OWNERS AND SETTLERS.
The books of the Holland Land Company, in 1816, indicated six land-owners in the present town. In 1823, land was owned on lot 1 by Benjamin CHAMBERLAIN; on lot 9, by James GODDARD and Jeremiah MAYBEE; on lot 10, by Jonathan KINNICUTT; on lot 18, by David HILL and John A. KINNICUTT; on lot 19, by James REYNOLDS; on lot 33, by Robert GUY; and on lot 62, by John KENDALL.In 1838 the owners of improved property were
A very large proportion of these land-owners were actual settlers, and the foregoing list is valuable for showing not only the small area of the town substantially improved forty years ago, but gives also the names of those who endured the hardships of pioneers in their respective localities.
THE FIRST SETTLEMENT,
as near as can be ascertained, was made by Matthew DIMMICK, in 1818, on the southwest part of lot 57. He seems to have been a squatter only, and made but slight improvements, removing in a few years. The shanty built by him served the settlers as a place for shelter until they could provide their own humble homes. The same year, James GODARD settled on lot 9, where he soon after opened a tavern, and lived there until about 1830. David HAMMOND settled on lot 33, and sold his interests, in 1822, to Robert GUY, who came from Otsego County. GUY's place was on one of the main roads to the west, and he built a log house for a tavern, which is yet standing, but which was not much used for this purpose. In 1818, Benjamin CHAMBERLAIN also settled on lot 1, but did not remain in the town very long, selling his property, in 1824, to Leicester TRACY, who was elected the first supervisor of the town. TRACY built the first and only stone house in the town on this place. He removed to Napoli.
In January, 1819, Jonathan KINNICUTT came from Montgomery County and settled on lot 10. The season was unusually mild, enabling the family to gather forest leaves to fill their bed mattresses. About 1835, KINNICUTT again became a pioneer, this time removing to Illinois. He built one of the first frame barns in the town.
The following year, David HILL came from the same county as KINNICUTT, and settled on lot 18. He removed to Gowanda. Smith WATERMAN also came this year, or the year before, and made a home on lot 25. This was purchased by Robert CHAMPLIN, and WATERMAN moved to Perry.
John A. KINNICUTT, a native of Rensselaer County, but who had gone to Livingston County, was the next New Albion pioneer, coming with his wife and child on the 12th of January, 1821. He had visited the country the fall before, and put up a shanty on lot 18, into which he moved. Since 1834 he has lived on his present place on lot 42, and he and his wife, Sophronia, are now the oldest settlers living in town. Mr. KINNICUTT was the first town clerk, and held that office seventeen years. He was elected to several important offices in the old town of Little Valley; among others that of justice of the peace, an office which he creditably filled forty years. A son, John, was one of the supervisors of the town.
Jeremiah MAYBEE settled on lot 9, either in 1821 or 1822. His eldest son, James, was the first collector.
Horace SNYDER came with his father from Onondaga County in 1825, and remained with him in the present town of Persia for two years. He then settled on lot 55, living in a log house twenty-four years, after which he built the frame house which he now occupies. When Mr. SNYDER came to this place, his nearest neighbors south lived four miles away, and it was two miles to a neighbor on the north. After 1837 many settlers came to this locality, which is now one of the finest in the town. Some of Mr. SNYDER's brothers were early settlers on lot 47.
Wm. BUFFINGTON came from the " Old Bay State" in his youth to Onondaga County. In the fall of 1824 he visited New Albion, purchasing land on lot 6. The succeeding year his son, James, came on to improve the land, and joined Timothy GOWEN, who came from the same place, and settled on lot 5, in building a shanty which they covered with bark. In this they lived that summer and winter. In the early part of 1826, Wm. BUFFINGTON brought on his family, who took up their abode in a log house without doors or windows, in the almost unbroken forest, full of wild animals, which occasionally came close to the cabin. The cooking was done outdoors, in the most primitive manner. A son-in-law, Wm. TRAVIS, settled near them. BUFFINGTON died in 1858. A son, Jeremiah, is yet a resident of the town, and the youngest son, the Hon. Wm. BUFFINGTON is a well-known citizen of Connewango
In this locality also settled, between 1826 and 1830, John S. HARVEY, on lot 7, who was in early times the largest farmer in the town; Abner and Isaac WOOD, on lot 8; John ACKLEY, on lot 15; John and Isaac RICE, on lot 13; and David BUFFINGTON, on lot 14. Nearly all of these came from Onondaga County. Isaac RICE was one of the first justices, and disappeared very mysteriously while on a business trip down the Allegany River. The HERRICK families, J. H. and Samuel B., settled on lot 4, about the same time. In the southern part of the town Abram DAY made a home on lot 34, before 1830. During Jackson's administration he was the keeper of the light-house at Dunkirk.
Calvin HARTWELL, from Orleans County, came in the summer of 1826, and settled on lot 46; and Robert CHAMPLIN located on lot 33 the same year. Comfort E. SUMNER was an early settler on lot 61. At a later day John MOSHER, from Wyoming County, came to this locality. He left his family in the town of Leon until he could build a house, bringing, them on in May, 1827, and for some time they lived in a very primitive way, doing their cooking by the side of a stump. A year later Stephen BEMIS, from the same county, settled on lot 41; William HIGBEE, with his sons Noah and Sanford, located on lot 46, in May; and the PEPPERDINEs on lot 56.
On lot 48, Calvin RICH, from Orleans County, made a home in 1828, building a large log house, which soon became one of the landmarks in this part of the town. His brother, Arad, settled a little north of this place. Calvin RICH was one of the most prominent men of the town, and took a deep interest in civil and religious affairs. He had sons named Salmon, Heman, and Charles. The latter was born on the old homestead, which he now occupies. Calvin RICH died in 1863, but his wife, familiarly known as Aunt Hannah, is still living, with unimpaired intellect, at the age of ninety years.
James and Warren BARNARD came from the same county the same year, and settled on lots 36 and 55. The latter still lives in town. Charles SIBLEY settled on lot 44, about the same time, and a few years later erected the first grist-mill in town; and the ROSS and PAYNE families also became citizens of the town before 1830, coming from Oneida County.
On the 1st of April, 1829, Jacob SMITH, a poor but enterprising young man, made a beginning on lot 54. He married the following year, paying one dollar of the four dollars that composed his capital to have the knot properly tied by Esquire RICH. Neither he nor his wife had anything with which to commence housekeeping, and it was only by exercising the greatest economy that he was enabled to accumulate means to purchase household goods. Mr. SMITH relates the following incident in his pioneer life: In 1836 he and his wife went to Gowanda to mill, intending to return the same day. Darkness overtook them before the journey home was half completed, and rain began to fall about the same time. In the gloom, their wagon ran afoul a tree, so that they were unable to extricate it. Nothing was left for them to do but pass the night in the woods. They accordingly chained the oxen to a tree, and placed the meal-bags under the wagon for a bed, the wagon-box keeping the rain off. The woods were infested with wolves, and their howling could be heard all night. In the morning they resumed their journey, reaching their home safe.
Capt. Nicholas EVERTS, from Monroe County, settled on lot 60, in 1829, and has since lived there as one of the best known citizens of that part of the town. In 1831, James JEWELL, from Otsego County, settled on lot 45; and a few years later Jonathan B. JEWELL and a brother settled on lot 53. In this locality were also Daniel H. POWELL and Thomas J. WATERS as pioneers.
Horace C. YOUNG, from Madison County, came in May, 1832, and located on lot 41, which was first improved by Stephen BEMIS. Here he has lived ever since, holding many important offices. He was an Assemblyman in 1849-50, and State Senator in 1862-63.
After 1832 many settlers found homes in New Albion, and in a few years thereafter there were 120 improved places in town, as will be seen from the list elsewhere given. The population in 1860 was 1597; and in 1875, 1584.
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PIONEER MILLS, STORES, AND TAVERNS.
A pioneer saw-mill was built on lot 29, on the south branch of the Cattaraugus Creek, by Mathew NEALY, some time about 1834. A few years later John JONES put up a saw-mill a short distance from the present "WAIT" mill, which was operated about fifteen years. William KENDALL erected a saw-mill on lot 35 at an early day, which was operated by Solomon G. WRIGHT. The latter built a residence near the mill, which, from its unique shape, was called by the neighbors "Solomon's Temple."
On lot 44 Charles SIBLEY got in operation the first grist-mill in the town, in 1836. The power was furnished by a branch of the Connewango Creek, at that time a considerable stream, and the mill was run about twenty years. Near this site Warren BARNARD had a saw-mill, which was allowed to go down after a few years. The other mills of the town are noted in connection with the villages in which they are located.
The first tavern in town was kept on lot 1, on the old Chautauqua road, by James GODARD, probably as early as 1820. After GODARD's death, in 1830, this tavern was continued by Abram MATTESON, who married the widow of the former. The first store was kept at New Albion.
.EARLY BIRTHS, MARRIAGES, AND DEATHS
It is said that the first born in town was a mulatto child, which lived but a few days, and was buried near the place of its birth, a short distance east of Robert CHAMPLIN's house.
The first white children were Robin A. and Avis C., daughters of Jonathan and Jane KINNICUTT, who were born in April, 1819. Both these ladies remained single, and are now living in the State of Illinois. In 1822, Leander, a son of John A. and Sophronia KINNICUTT was born.
About 1824, Noel HOPKINS, of Little Valley, married Sally Simmons, who had her home at Jonathan KINNICUTT's. The ceremony was performed by a Methodist minister, and it is believed that this was the first couple wedded in town. No other marriages took place for several years following.
The first death of a white person was a daughter of Noah DREW, who was buried on the roadside near CHAMPLIN's. James GODARD died about 1830, and was one of the first adults to depart this life in New Albion. He was interred on his farm, now owned by R. CHAMPLIN.
The cemeteries of the town are maintained by individuals in whose neighborhood they are situated, and as a general thing are not well kept. Lately an effort has been made for their better improvement and the establishment of a central cemetery.
The "Cattaraugus Cemetery Association" was formed under the rural cemetery laws of the State, Aug. 9, 1875. The trustees elected were Elisha L. JOHNSON, H. C. RICH, Henry YOUNG, Danford RICH, Tompkins L. DE NIKE, J. P. DARLING, Wm. G. HALL, Luther H. NORTHROP, H. W. HINMAN, L. H. MALTBIE, Jeremiah H. HERRICK, and B. L. BABB. But nothing more than this organization of the board of trustees has been effected by the association.
The electors assembled at the house of John A. KINNICUTT, March 2 and 3, 1830, to hold their first annual meeting and to elect the following officers: Supervisor, Leicester TRACY; Town Clerk, John A. KINNICUTT; Justices, John A. KINNICUTT, Isaac RICE, Calvin RICH, Abram DAY; Assessors, Josiah PEIRCE, Isaac RICE, William ROSS; Collector, James MAYBEE; Constables, Timothy GUY, Noah HIGBEE, Isaac P. WOOD, James MAYBEE; Commissioners of Highways, James BUFFINGTON, James WILLIAMS, Arad RICH; School Commissioners, William BUFFINGTON, William HIGBEE, Leicester TRACY; School Inspectors, Comfort E. SUMNER, Calvin RICH, John A. KINNICUTT; Overseers of the Poor, Robert GUY, Timothy GOWEN.
Since 1830, the principal officers of the town have been as follows:
|1831||Calvin RICH||John A. KINNICUTT|
|1835||"||Thomas J. WATERS|
|1836||"||John A. KINNICUTT|
|1837||John S. HARVEY||"|
|1843||Horace C. YOUNG||"|
|1845||Horace C. YOUNG||"|
|1847||"||John A. KINNICUTT|
|1849||Wm. BUFFINGTON, Jr.||Reuben J. WATERS|
|1853||Alson LEAVENWORTH||Charles KENDALL|
|1855||John P. DARLING||Whitney JEWELL|
|1857||Wm. BUFFINGTON, Jr.||"|
|1858||John P. DARLING||L. H. MALTBIE|
|1859||Martin HARDENBERG||Hiram RUMSEY|
|1860||John P. DARLING||L. H. MALTBIE|
|1861||"||Elisha L. JOHNSON|
|1863||John P. DARLING||"|
|1865||John P. DARLING||"|
|1866||Bolivar R. LAMB||Hiram RUMSEY|
|1867||John P. DARLING||"|
|1868||Horatio BABB||E. L. JOHNSON|
|1869||Eugene A. NASH||"|
|1870||"||Hiram M. HERRICK|
|1871||Bolivar R. LAMB||Wm. C. MAXSON|
|1872||Tompkins I. TEN EYCK||Ozro HUNTON|
|1873||Eugene A. NASH||"|
|1875||John P. DARLING||Marion J. RICH|
|1876||Sylvester M. COX||"|
|1877||Gilbert MILKS||George HUNTON|
|1878||Wilber J. MANLEY||Tompkins I. TEN EYCK|
|1831||Comfort E. SUMNER||1854||Beulah TARBOX|
|Linus SUTLIFF||1855||John A. KINNICUTT|
|1832||Isaac RICE||Arad RICH|
|1833||Charles SIBLEY||Jason HUNTLEY|
|Calvin HALL||1856||Alson LEAVENWORTH|
|1834||Horace C. YOUNG||1857||Asa PRITCHARD|
|1835||John A. KINNICUTT||Allen CAMPBELL|
|Calvin HALL||1858||Wm. C. MILLS|
|1836||Abram MATTESON||Melzer JONES|
|1837||John MOSHER||1859||John A. KINNICUTT|
|Adonijah BURRELL||Zimri HOWE|
|1838||John A. KINNICUTT||Daniel BROWN|
|William TRAVIS||1860||Jared PUDDY|
|Robert YOUNG||1861||Arad RICH|
|1839||Arad RICH||1862||George HUNTON|
|1840||Calvin HALL||1863||George A. PAYNE|
|1841||Solomon G. WRIGHT||1864||George STRAIGHT|
|1842||John A. KINNICUTT||1865||Arad RICH|
|1843||Seth LANE||1866||Wilber F. KINNICUTT|
|1844||Melzer JONES||George HUNTON|
|Arad RICH||Elias L. MATTESON|
|1845||Wm. D. CORNELL||1867||John A. KINNICUTT|
|Harrison JUDD||John RUSSELL|
|1846||Levi W. BOARDMAN||1868||Truman MATTOCK|
|1847||John A. KINNICUTT||1869||James H. RYDER|
|1848||Harrison JUDD||1870||George HUNTON|
|Solomon G. WRIGHT||1871||Edwin DAVIS|
|1849||Wm. D. CORNELL||1872||Wm. PFLUEGER|
|1850||Arad RICH||1873||Salmon L. JOHNSON|
|1851||Orrin TUBBS||1874||George HUNTON|
|Levi W. BOARDMAN||1875||Edwin DAVIS|
|1852||Pliny L. FOX||1876||Salmon L. JOHNSON|
|Asa FRANKLIN||1877||George STRAIGHT|
|1853||Warren BARNARD||1878||George HUNTON|
THE TOWN RECORDS
contain several items of interest. In 1830, it was voted that cattle be free commoners, and that a lawful fence be four and a half feet high. In 1849, "Resolved, That there be a bounty paid of one shilling per head on all the crows killed in the town till the 10th of June next. In 1860, "Resolved, That the Dog Money of 1864, - $64.30, - now on hand, be used by the supervisor to pay to the Military Bureau of the State, for the purpose of erecting, a hall to preserve military records, etc."
In I871 the meeting protested against any appropriation to reimburse any parties for expenses contracted in the erection of the county buildings at Little Valley, and instructed the supervisor of the town to oppose every proposition to levy any tax designed to cover expenses contracted in the removal of the county-seat.
At various times during the Rebellion special meetings were held, but no record of the proceedings has been preserved.
Most of the roads of the town were early located, many while the town was yet a part of Little Valley. One of the best known highways is the "Old Chautauqua Road." It enters the town at the southeast corner, and passes through it westwardly, following the highlands. It is a very hilly road, and has been less frequently used since the lowlands have been settled and new roads located through the valleys. From being mere bridle-paths, the other roads have been improved generally to an excellent condition, and easy communication is now afforded in every direction.
At the first town-meeting, nine road districts were formed, with the following overseers: Robert CHAMPLIN, Linus SUTLIFF, John DREW, Elijah DREW, Jr., John MOSHER, Josiah PEIRCE, Isaac RICE, John PETERSON, and Timothy GOWEN. In 1878 there were 56 road districts.
In 1851 the New York and Erie Railroad was completed through the town, giving it direct communication with Dunkirk and eastern cities. It greatly appreciated the value of real estate, and affords good shipping facilities at its station, - Cattaraugus.
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CREAMERIES AND CHEESE-FACTORIES.
The BIGELOW Creamery, at New Albion, is in a factory erected about 1867 by ROBINSON & SPORE. It is a three-story frame 40 by 100 feet, with an ell 30 by 60, and is well supplied with pure water. The manufacture of cheese was here carried on until 1875, when RUSH & Co. changed it to a creamery. Since the season of 1878 it has been operated by W. J. BIGELOW, under the superintendence of E. LAWRENCE. The milk of 350 cows is used, yielding about 800 pounds of butter per week. The churning is done by a 12 horse-power engine.
The Cattaraugus Cheese-Factory occupies buildings formerly used as a sash-factory, and was adapted to this purpose by ROBINSON & SPORE about 1870. There are two rooms, 35 by 60 feet, supplied with 3 vats. Nine thousand pounds of milk are consumed daily in the product of 10 60-pound cheeses. The factory has 40 patrons, and is carried on by RUSH & PERKINS.
The W J. MANLEY Factory, No, 2, in the SNYDER neighborhood, was erected in 1873 by Asa PRITCHARD. There is a main building 20 by 40 feet, and a wing, containing two vats, in which 6000 pounds of milk are used daily in the manufacture of cream cheese. The factory has 16 patrons.
Eben SIBLEY's Creamery and Cheese-Factory, on lot 9, uses the milk of 275 cows, and produces 9 cheeses per day, and butter of an excellent quality. The factory buildings are neat and well arranged.
Lemuel Jenks' Cheese-Factory is a private establishment, whose product is about 5 cream cheeses a day.
In addition to the foregoing, there are a number of private dairies in town. In 1874 the product of butter made in families was 84,489 pounds.
This hamlet, locally known as Horth's Corners, is situated near the centre of the town, and contains two stores, a hotel, post-office, a cheese-factory, a lumber manufacturing establishment, several mechanic shops, and about 75 inhabitants. It is the oldest business point in the town, and was formerly the seat of an active trade. Here was opened the first store, in 1833, by Erastus HORTH. A few years later Mr. HORTH erected the building on the corner of the principal streets for a tavern, which he kept a long time. After Mr. HORTH's retirement from this place, Thad. CORNELL kept the house. Other landlords were John KINNICUTT, J. B. JEWELL, D. CLARK, Chauncy COE, S. HUBBELL, W. F. ROSS, and P. McCOON, the present proprietor.
HORTH & WHITCOMB opened a good store at the village, some time before 1840, in a building which, in a repaired condition, is yet used by L. D. HILL as a storeroom. Solon SPENCER, Byron GRAHAM, WHITCOMB & HORTH followed the first-named firm. The latter also had an extensive pearl-ash-factory. At a later period H. PARKER and John DAVIS were in trade in this building.
A second store was opened by John KINNICUTT, in a building erected by him, and which for many years has been occupied for mercantile purposes by Jerome ANDREWS.
The post-office was established some time before 1833, with A. HORTH as postmaster. John A. KINNICUTT was one of the first mail carriers from Gowanda to Ellenburgh going on foot and horseback.
Besides Mr. HORTH, the postmasters have been George WARDEN, Solomon G. WRIGHT, John A. KINNICUTT, John R. WESCOTT, J. B. JEWELL, Francis ALLEN, Jerome ANDREWS, George HUNTON, and L. D. HILL. There is a tri-weekly mail from Cattaraugus.
About 1845 a man named BRONSON operated a tannery at this place, in a building the lower story of which is stone. After it was abandoned the upper story was fitted up for a hall, in which were held the meetings of the Good Templars and Sons of Temperance. It is now a dwelling-house.
THE NEW ALBION CHEESE-BOX FACTORY, SAW- AND FEED-MILLS,
M. & M. W. COOK, proprietors, were established in 1876. The main building is 42 by 88 feet, two stories high, with an addition 45 by 20 feet. The power is supplied by a good 30 horse-power engine.
20,000 cheese-boxes are manufactured annually, and the capacity of the saw-mill is 800,000 feet per annum. The grinding capacity of the feed-mill is 30 bushels per hour. Hands employed, 8.
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This pleasant and thriving village is in the northern part of the town, eight miles from Little Valley, on the Erie Railroad. A station was here located in May, 1851, and Horatio BABB appointed agent, a position which he held until his death, twenty-four years later. In 1830 this locality was an unbroken wilderness, but that year Horace SNYDER made a clearing of six acres on the present village site, manufacturing potash from the timber he cut down. His ashery stood just below the "Cattaraugus House," where Mr. DARLING's residence now is.
When the railroad was located through here, Joseph PLUMB, of Gowanda who owned a large tract of land in this part of the town, platted that part of his farm on the hill-side facing south for a village to be founded on temperance principles. In the conveyance of the lots there was a "condition subsequent," by the terms of which the title should be forfeited if intoxicating liquors were sold as a beverage on the premises, and the property to revert to PLUMB or his heirs. The plan proved favorable, and the village grew rapidly, arousing the avarice of men interested in the liquor traffic, who regarded it as a favorable place for the prosecution of their trade. But the sentiment in favor of the prohibitory clause was so strong that it was respected a number of years. At length a man named TUBBS bought a lot, on which he built a shop and commenced selling liquor, in open violation of the restraining clause in his deed to the real estate on which his shop stood. Persisting in his course against the entreaties of Mr. PLUMB, the latter determined to test the validity of his assumed right, and secured an action of ejectment to enforce the condition of the deed and recover the lot. The friends of TUBBS abetted him, and urged him to resist to the extent of the law. Issue was taken, and the cause was tried before the Cattaraugus Circuit Court. The jury failed to agree, and the matter was again submitted to a subsequent court, which gave a verdict, subject to the opinion of the court at general term, resulting in a verdict for Mr. PLUMB. The defendant carried the case to the Court of Appeals, which, in December, 1869, affirmed the judgment of the Supreme Court, sustaining Mr. PLUMB in his purpose to create a village where liquor should not be sold, and forming a very important precedent which will enable a community to protect itself from the evils and burdens occasioned by the liquor traffic. Since then no open attempt has been made to sell liquor, and intemperance has not been able to obtain a foothold in the place.
It play be here noted that Mr. PLUMB generously deeded the reverted property to the family of the defendant, who had burdened himself in his efforts to overthrow this principle, and that before his death he ceded all his interest in forfeited lands to the Congregational Church of Otto. *
* Joseph PLUMB was born in Oneida County in 1792, and became a merchant at Paris, his native place, while quite young. In 1816 he moved to Fredonia, and in 1827 to Gowanda, where he engaged with his brother Ralph in trade, and resided there until 1854. He early became a reformer - avowing himself an abolitionist - and a temperance man, although formerly engaged in the traffic of liquor. He was an elder of the Presbyterian Church and an active member of that body. In 1850 he purchased the farm at Cattaraugus, to which he moved in 1854. Here he worked zealously for the best interests of the place, and for the welfare of mankind at large, until his death, May 25, 1870. Several of his sons became distinguished clergymen, and another has filled important civil positions under the national government.
The first residence erected in Cattaraugus was that of Heman RICH, and which has since been occupied by him. Dr. Alson LEAVENWORTH erected the first and only brick house, about 1854. "DARLING's Hall," a large and comfortable place for public meetings, was erected in 1875. The village was once visited by a tornado and suffered from two fires, but has made a substantial growth, and at present contains about 500 inhabitants. Its principal interests and enterprises are detailed in the following pages. The place has several fine residences, two good churches, - Methodist and Roman Catholic, - and a fine union school.
The manufacturing interests of the village have attained considerable prominence, and embrace the following establishments:
The Cattaraugus Steam, Flour- and Saw-Mills, which were erected in 1858, by Joseph PLUMB, for the "Cattaraugus Steam-Mill Company," are among the most notable enterprises in the place. The articles of association forming the "Mill Company," bear date Feb. 18, 1857, and are signed by S. L. JOHNSON, Joseph PLUMB, Enos AUSTIN, M. K. WILSON, Hiram RUMSEY, L. D. BOTTSFORD and L. H. MALTBIE. S. L. JOHNSON was for many years president of the company, which disposed of its interests in the mills about 1860. The original cost was $8000. The motive power is furnished by an 80 horse-power engine, and the machinery gives the mills capacity to grind 400 bushels of grain per day, and cut 3000 feet of lumber every ten hours. At present they are the property of S. L. & E. L. JOHNSON, who have materially improved them. These gentlemen are also general dealers in lumber, and operate planing- and matching-machines, etc., in connection with their saw-mills. At the same place George P. WALTER is associated with them in the manufacture of fork- and hoe-handles, cheese-boxes, and in carrying on a large cooperage.
The Cattaraugus Tannery was built in 1857 by Martin and Addison HARDENBERG, and was operated by them eight years. In 1865, Christopher MOENCH became the proprietor, and soon after associated with him GAENSSLEN Brothers, of Chicago, under the firm-name of C. MOENCH & Co., who are yet the owners.
The tannery embraces several extensive buildings, containing 50 liquor vats, and are supplied with improved machinery. The required power is supplied by the small stream on which it is located, in the eastern part of the village, and a 55 horse-power engine, the fires of which are fed on the refuse bark of the tannery.
About 22,0000 hides are hemlock-tanned for sole leather per year, which gives employment to 12 men.
The Common-Sense Milk-Pan Factory, OAKES & CALVER, proprietors, in the southern part of the village, was established in 1873. It occupies a large building, enabling the production of a great quantity of work annually. The pans are the invention of T. S. OAKES, and were patented Jan. 28, 1873. They are arranged in sets of 4 pans, holding from 8 to 100 gallons of milk, which rest on zinc-lined wooden vats, through which a stream of water is passed in such a manner that the milk is completely surrounded by water, which quickly reduces it to a temperature for the favorable production of cream, and completely removes the offensive animal odor which is sometimes connected with milk. The pans have been warmly commended by dairy-men, and their use in this section has become quite general.
The same firm also manufacture scale boards for packing cheese, and have the only establishment of the kind in the State. The product in 1878 was 4,000,000 boards of the diameter of an ordinary cheese. The firm gives employment to 12 men.
In the same building the Cattaraugus Fruit Package Company carries on the manufacture of all kinds of baskets and crates for packing small fruits. The product of the factory is shipped to western and southern markets.
J. H. RYDER's Furniture-Factory was established in 1859, in a building on the corner of Main and Waverly Streets, which was destroyed by fire Oct. 2, 1875. In March, 1878, Mr. RYDER re-established his factory in the southern part of the village, in a lumber-mill erected in 1875 by Chauncy JONES. The motive power is steam, from a 40 horse-power engine, which drives a large circular saw, capable of cutting several thousand feet of lumber per day, and machinery especially designed for the manufacture of bedsteads and extension-tables. Nine men are employed.
At the same place is the Cattaraugus Chair-Factory, removed to this place from Salamanca in the fall of 1878, by B. H. HALE. Several excellent patterns are produced, among the leading ones being "The Old Arm" and "The Mother's Own Chair." For comfort and durability these chairs are seldom equaled. Mr. HALE is also a large manufacturer of foot-stools and piano-stools.
A short distance west of the village is Amrose SNYDER's Furniture-Factory, established several years ago by Hiram BLAKELY. The works have grown from a small beginning to an establishment of considerable business. The motor is steam, and the number of hands employed, 8.
ROSS' Carriage-Works were established in 1873 by the present proprietor, A. A. ROSS. They occupy several shops, and have a fine salesroom on South Street, near Waverly Street. Six men are employed in the different shops.
In addition to the foregoing, the place has a number of good mechanic shops, common to a country village, in which 8 or 10 men are engaged.
On the brook, in the eastern part of the village, Anson SMITH erected a sash- and blind-factory soon after the village was founded, where a large amount of work was done, and which was continued a dozen years or more. In 1870 the buildings were converted into a cheese-factory, at present operated by RUSH & PERKINS.
Below the tannery, on a branch of the Cattaraugus Creek, is L. RICH's shingle-mill, having a capacity of 200,000 shingles a year; and yet farther below is the " WAIT" Saw-mill, erected in 1865 by Leroy RICH, and operated since 1871 by Jesse WAIT. Here is a water-power of 14 feet fall, which propels machinery to cut 2000 feet of lumber a day.
A mile north from this point, on the Cattaraugus Creek, a mill was built many years ago by a man named CAMP. About 1860, David CARTER became the owner and enlarged the business, adding planing- and matching-machines. At a later period C. & H. CARTER owned and operated this mill.
STORES AND HOTELS.
As early as 1836, John JONES was in trade in a small way near where the village of Cattaraugus now is. His store was in a small frame house which stood near the site of Clark HOLMES' residence, but which was moved south on the " flats," and is now the home of Henry HYSLOP. But the first regular store in the place was opened in May, 1851, by ELLIOTT & JOHNSON, in connection with their store at Otto. Since 1860, S. L. & E. L. JOHNSON have been in trade at this stand, and rank among the leading business men of the northern part of the county. The same year, 1851, L. A. MALTBIE, clothier, came, and still continues. In the fall of 1852 the firm of DARLING & WILSON, merchants at Otto, established a trade which is yet carried on by DARLING & STRAIGHT. Mr. J. P. DARLING, the senior member of the firm, besides being a successful business man, served his county as State Senator.
Among other former merchants at this place were Hiram RUMSEY, L. D. BOTTSFORD, A. E. LEAVENWORTH, James FERRIS, Nathaniel CHRISTIE, TUTTLE & TAYLOR, and T. BABB, and in addition to these already mentioned as being in trade, N. HIGBEE, L. PHILLIPS, J. B. COTRAEL, HOAG & NORTHRUP, H. C. RICH & Co., J. BORGIES, and W. J. HARKNESS are among the principal merchants.
In the fall of 1852, Enos AUSTIN came from Otto and established himself as a dealer in dairy and farm produce. He made the first shipment of cheese by railroad from this point that year, and engaged so actively in this branch of trade that Cattaraugus became an excellent market for butter and cheese. The produce business is now carried on by W. J. MANLEY.
Wm. BUFFINGTON kept the first public-house, in 1851, in the building which, in a remodeled condition, is now known as the "Cattaraugus House." This was the first frame building in the place. Besides Mr. BUFFINGTON, P. WOODRUFF, J. H. OYER, and Eugene WESCOTT have here served as landlords. In the same vicinity O. CHASE opened and kept a tavern many years, which is now known as the "J. L. CLARK House."
POST-OFFICE, BANK, AND THE PROFESSIONS.
The Cattaraugus post-office was established in 1851, with S. L. JOHNSON postmaster. His successors have been O. W. TUBBS, C. H. COTRAEL, G. STRAIGHT, L. H. MALTBIE, and S. L. JOHNSON. In October, 1877, it became a money-order office, and is the distributing office for the mails of Otto, Springville, and other eastern points, and Leon in the west.
The "Cattaraugus Banking Company," organized in 1869, conducts business as a private institution. M. G. ELLIOTT is the acting president. The bank is in the DARLING Block.
A Dr. BROWN was the first to locate in the village as a physician, remaining but a few years. Dr. Wm. F. UNDERWOOD, a botanical practitioner, came next. Drs. ACKLEY, ALLEN, and DEVOE were also in practice; and Drs. BABCOCK and G. LATTIN at present represent the profession in the village.
The veteran Dr. Alson LEAVENWORTH removed to this place after 1851, and lived here until his death, but did not practice medicine.
Pliny L. FOX was the first attorney. He was also elected a magistrate, and conducted his court with the utmost regard for the dignity of the law. Elias L. MATTESON came soon after FOX. George STRAIGHT came in 1862, and is yet a counselor. E. A. NASH was here from 1867 to 1874; and since 1873, Hiram L. HERRICK has here practiced law; and T. J. FARRAR is a general insurance agent.
The publication of the Cattaraugus Gazette was begun some time in 1877, by J. S. FIDLER, as a Republican sheet. In August, 1878, the paper was removed to Salamanca to advocate the cause of the National party.
The "Arizona Milling and Mining Company," organized July 25, 1878, has an office at Cattaraugus, and mines in Yuma Co., Arizona.
The directors chosen were A. W. FERRIN, B. B. WEBER, P. H. GRAVES, E. L. JOHNSON, M. G. ELLIOTT, T. J. FARRAR, F. S. OAKES, Wm. CALVER, and P. D. BARNHART. A. W. FERRIN was elected president of the company, and B. B. WEBER superintendent of the mines.
SOCIETIES AND SECRET ORDERS.
A lodge of Odd Fellows formerly existed in the village, having been removed here from Otto. The meetings were held in the Davis Block, which was burned in 1874. But the lodge had gone down many years before. Several lodges of Good Templars have also disbanded.
Cattaraugus Council, No. 41, Royal Templars of Temperance, was instituted March 2, 1878. It is a beneficiary organization, exacting a temperate life on the part of its members as being likely to reduce the death losses. The order also affords assurance against sickness, and in case of disability the insured can receive one-half of his policy, $1000, in installments, as a means of support, the remaining $1000 to be paid at death.
Cattaraugus Council, No. 35, contains members of both sexes, and has for its principal officers, S. L. JOHNSON, P. C.; L. H. NORTHRUP, C.; and F. S. OAKES, S.
Cattaraugus Lodge, No. 57, A. O. U. W., was organized Jan. 11, 1877, with Thomas BABB, P. M. W.; George P. WALTERS, M. W.; William A. COX, G. F.; A. L. PALMER, O.; M. F. LENOX, R.; Daniel KAVENAUGH, Rec.; Edgar FULLER, G.; William WEIDNER, L. W.; Caleb VAN GORDEN, O. W.; W. A. COX, A. L. PALMER, Daniel KAVENAUGH, Trustees; and Dr. George LATTIN, Medical Examiner.
There is also in the village a temple of the Knights of Honor, concerning which no definite information has been received.
were taught in the town as soon as the settlements were strong enough to maintain them. The first was kept in a log house, which stood on lot 10, in the summer of 1823, by John ALLEN, a Scotchman. Among the pupils were the children of Jonathan KINNICUTT and David HILL. Soon after another school was taught at New Albion Centre, and still another in the RICH neighborhood. In 1826, Francis WINCHESTER kept a school in the BUFFINGTON Settlement, in a log shanty which was covered with split logs, and which was regarded as a very comfortable place for those times.
The town is at present provided with fair school buildings, and good schools are generally maintained. The school-house at Cattaraugus was erected in 1852, and is a good two-story frame structure. The enrollment of pupils is nearly 200, and 3 teachers are employed. Prof. E. J. SWIFT has been the principal for the past two years.
Oct. 29, 1878, the Union Free-School system was adopted, and a board of education elected, composed of J. L. HIGBEE, T. L. DENIKE, F. S. OAKES, C. MOENCH, and J. S. GIBBS.
The town, by the report of 1878, contained eight school districts, with eight school-houses, which, with sites, are valued at $4000, and having 185 volumes in library valued at $75. Nine teachers were employed, to whom was paid $2505.50. The number of children of school age was 475, and the average daily attendance was 251 695/10000; number of weeks taught was 220 1/5; amount of public money received, $1143.44; amount received from tax, $1245.25.
The Methodists were the first to hold regular meetings in town. About 1827 a class was organized on SNYDER Hill by the Rev. Joseph S. BARRIA, at that time the preacher on the Forestville circuit, having among its members Horace SNYDER's family, Silas KELLOGG, Rufus PEIRCE, Samuel KENDALL, etc. The meetings were held at SNYDER's house until after Calvin RICH settled here and built a larger house, when they were held at the latter's place several years. The quarterly meetings were held in barns belonging to RICH and to George SNYDER, living north from here in the town of Persia. Subsequently the meetings were held in the school-house, and the pioneer ministers were Revs. Samuel AYRES, James GILMORE, R. PLIMPTON, David PRESTON, Samuel E. BABCOCK, N. HENRY, John K. HALLECK, J. H. JACKETT, S. GREGG, and others.
Occasional Methodist services are still held in this locality, although the greater part of the interest has been absorbed by the church at Cattaraugus.
In 1832 another Methodist class was formed at New Albion Centre, its members having been the WRIGHTs, DAVISes, BARNARDs, DAYs, etc. Eber WRIGHT was a local preacher and a very active member. In time an effort was made to build a house of worship at this point, and work was done to the extent of laying a foundation. The removal of members had so much weakened the class that the purpose had to be abandoned at this stage.
About 1840 a Free-Will Baptist society was formed in the eastern part of the town, holding its meetings in the school-house, on lot 6. Among other members were Samuel and Heman GREEN, and George BABCOCK, the latter being a local preacher. Rev. Joseph DAVIS occasionally preached here. The loss of members by removal caused the society to disband in eight or ten years.
About this time the Christians held meetings in the log school-house northeast of the village of Cattaraugus, and many of the Baptists joined this church. Elders LEE, COOK, DAVIS, and WALDON were among the ministers who statedly preached here. This society also went down after a few years.
The Methodists held services in the school-house at Cattaraugus soon after its erection, in connection with the work in the western part of the town. On the 8th of January, 1857, "the Cattaraugus Methodist Episcopal Society" was duly incorporated, and Arad RICH, L. D. BOTSFORD, Spencer RICH, Danford RICH, and Ephraim Ford chosen trustees. A frame meeting-house was erected, at a cost of $2500, for the society by H. C. YOUNG, and used in that condition until 1874, when it was remodeled and made more attractive. It occupies an eligible site, and is reported worth $3000. There is also a good parsonage, valued at $2000, donated by Anson SMITH. The society has also received a benefaction from Mrs. Mary RICH.
On the 4th of April, 1877, the title of the society was changed to that of "The Methodist Episcopal Society of the village of Cattaraugus." The trustees chosen were Morris J. HOVEY, Wm. G. HALL, Charles J. RICH, Norman HIGBEE, and Hiram RUMSEY. The church has enjoyed a fair degree of prosperity, and at present has 62 members, under the pastoral care of the Rev. S. S. BURTON.
There is a Sunday-school having 130 members, superintended by A. A. ROSS, connected with the church, and a library of 300 volumes is maintained.
THE ST. MARY'S CHURCH AND SOCIETY (ROMAN CATHOLIC) OF CATTARAUGUS VILLAGE
was incorporated Dec. 12, 1863, according to the act of April 5, 1863. The trustees were John TIMON, Bishop of Buffalo; F. N. LESTER, Vicar-General; John BAUDNELLI, Pastor, residing at Dunkirk; Stephen O'DONNELL, John GORDON, Lay Members.
A plain but substantial frame church was erected west of the depot, in which worship is held statedly by a nonresident priest in connection with other places on his parish.
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JOHN P. DARLING is a native of Berkshire CO., Mass. He was born on the 25th of February, 1815. His father, Rufus Darling, emigrated to New York in 1818, and settled in the town of Lenox, in Madison County. He was a practical farmer, and removed to Cattaraugus County in 1824, where he resided till 1828, when he died at Black Rock, Erie Co., N. Y., while absent from home, at the age of forty-seven. His wife, Prudy Lee, the mother of the subject of this sketch, died in July, 1873, aged eighty-six years. Her family was from Wales, and her husband was of English descent.
John P. Darling received all his education in an old log school-house in the town of Otto, where his parents resided. He advanced in arithmetic as far as the single rule of three, and was taught to about the same extent in some of the more ordinary English branches of common school. At the age of thirteen, after his father's death, he remained at home with his mother, working out occasionally for himself, until he was about sixteen years old, when he employed himself on the Allegany River as a raftsman. In the spring of 1831 he descended the river in this capacity to the Ohio, and thence to Louisville, Kentucky, cooking his own board and using the soft side of a plank for his bed. In the fall of 1831 he went on to Grand Island, in the Niagara River, where he spent the most of the winter in cutting cord-wood. In the spring of 1833 he hired himself out to work on a farm in Otto, Cattaraugus County, where he remained a. large proportion of the time till 1834, when he became a clerk in the store of C. B. Allen, in the village of Waverly, New York. Here he remained about four years, when he went into the mercantile trade as a partner with Win. F. Elliott, in the same village, and continued the copartnership until 1848, when he embarked in the same business on his own responsibility. In 1851 he started a branch store at Cattaraugus, on the New York and Erie Railroad, and in 1853 sold out at Waverly and removed to Cattaraugus, where he now resides, and where lie followed the mercantile trade till 1856, when be disposed of his business altogether.
In 1837 he was elected inspector of elections in the town of Otto, and held the place for several years. In 1838 he was elected town clerk, and held the office at different .periods for several years. In 1845 he was elected supervisor of Otto, which position he held for a number of terms. He was subsequently elected to the same office where he now resides. In 1850 he was appointed postmaster of Otto, under President Taylor, and held the office during Taylor's and Fillmore's administrations. In 1851 he was elected treasurer of Cattaraugus County, and held the office three years. In the fall of 1856 he was elected a member of the State Senate, by a majority of eight thousand, from the Thirty-second district to fill the unexpired term of Hon. Roderick White, who died in the spring of that year. He was again nominated by the Republican party in 1857 for the same position, and was elected to the Senate by a majority of nearly four thousand. Was elected chairman of the board of supervisors at their annual session in 1860, and also in 1861 ; also at a special session of March, 1867; was appointed State assessor in the spring of 1864; served for that year and resigned.
Ex-Senator Darling has been somewhat of a politician, and very early in life identified himself with the Free-Soil Whigs. He has always been strongly free-soil in all his views and feelings, but never failed to act with the Whig party while it had an organization. Shortly after the American party came into existence he became a member, and was president of a lodge at Cattaraugus, New York; but coming to the conclusion that the organization was designed for pro-slavery objects and to kill, politically, Wm. H. Seward, he abandoned the organization, and the lodge or council of which he was president went out of being. In 1856 he took the stump for General Fremont, and since then he has been emphatically a Republican, voting for Horace Greeley as the embodiment of the principles of the party.
Ex-Senator Darling was married, in the fall of 1838, to Abiah Strickland, by whom he has two children,-daughters, both of whom are married and reside in the village of Cattaraugus New York. The eldest, Helen J., married George Straight, who is an attorney at law. The youngest, Martha E., married M. G. Elliott, who is a private banker.
Horace C. Young
Henry Young, father of Horace C., was born in Martha's Vineyard, Mass., in the year 1775. His father, also named Henry, came from Scotland ; he was a graduate of Edinburgh University, and was a teacher the greater portion of his life. He married Lydia Ross, a native of Martha's Vineyard. Henry Young, Jr., was a builder and architect. In his eighteenth year he removed to Williamstown, Mass., where he married Philena Kellogg, rearing a family of twelve children,-Electa A., Evelina E., Columbus K., Horace C., Caroline E., Sophia P., Eugene W., Julia A., Nancy, Mary H., Melinda M., and William C.,-of whom Sophia, Julia, Melinda, William, and the subject of this notice are still living. The parents are both deceased,-Henry Young, Jr., having died in March, 1852, and his wife in 1865. They died at Fenner, N. Y., to which place they had emigrated from Massachusetts.
Horace C. Young, son of the above, was born, Aug. 28, 1806, in the town of Smithfield (now Fenner), and there attended the district school until twelve years of age. At the age of sixteen he commenced working at the builder's trade with his father, following that occupation for several years, with occasional seasons employed in farm labor at home, and in chopping cord-wood. Jan. 19, 1831, he married Laura P., daughter of Gideon and Barbara (Olin) Walker, their family consisting of one son and five daughters, viz., Helen P., Laura P., Caroline E., Louisa E., Mary Z., and Horace Olin. Mrs. Young was a native of Cazenovia, N. Y., and her father lost his life in the defense of Fort Niagara, in the war of 1812.
In the spring of 1832, Mr. Young sold his small farm, and removed to Cattaraugus County, where he bought the "chance" on a tract of fifty-eight and a half acres of land, on which was a log shanty, roofed with bark, and having neither door nor window. During the succeeding years he worked upon his farm, making improvements, and in the erection of frame residences and barns for John Merchant, Isaac Dow, and Daniel Nichols, of Napoli ; Elijah Woods, in Stockton ; a school-house in the Curtis District, and a Baptist Church, etc. He was elected a justice of the peace in 1833, and in 1843 was elected supervisor of New Albion; be then leased his farm, tools up his residence in New Albion Centre, where be had purchased a house and lot, and worked at his trade in the village. Two years later he sold his village property, and moved back upon his farm.
In the fall of 1848 he was elected in a triangular contest to the Assembly of the State of New York, and much was due to his indefatigable efforts in defeating the scheme to make Buffalo the western terminus of the Erie Railroad, and in securing its direction through Cattaraugus County, with Dunkirk as its terminus, instead. In 1851 he built the railroad buildings at Cattaraugus, and later was in the employ (in the mechanical department) of the Buffalo and New York Central Railroad, from 1852 to 1854. The succeeding years he was engaged in contracting and building in New Albion and vicinity until 1861, when he was elected to the State Senate, serving there until 1864. The latter year he built the Methodist Episcopal Church at Cattaraugus, and in 1868 had charge of the erection of the County House at Machias. During all these years he erected also numberless residences, barns, bridges, etc. May 2, 1873, he, being in his sixty-seventh year, received a stroke of apoplexy, which prevented his further indulgence in manual labor. Notwithstanding his physical infirmities, in 1874 he took a journey of three thousand miles. Although physically disabled, he suffers but little, and spends most of his time in reading, writing, and overseeing his farm.
Mr. Young has led a very active and useful life. He had his full share of official honors, and discharged their several duties faithfully. He was school commissioner ten years; justice of the peace, assessor, and commissioner of deeds for about four years; supervisor, seven years; member of Assembly and of the State Senate for two years each. And now, in his seventy-third year, he has a consciousness of having faithfully performed all his trusts, political and social, and has an abiding faith in the future.
|Mr. and Mrs. Christopher Moench of New Albion|
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was born in Litchfield Co., Conn., in October, 1788. He enjoyed the meagre privileges of the common schools of New England. During the summer season his time was employed on the farm with his father until he was of age. He then commenced the study of medicine, which he pursued until May, 1811, when he was licensed to practice in his native State. After a year's experience, he felt the necessity of more thorough preparation for the successful practice of his profession.
Accordingly, in the autumn of 1812, Dr. LEAVENWORTH journeyed to Philadelphia, and entered as a student in the University of Medicine, in which the eminent Dr. Benjamin RUSH was one of the professors; and it was the good fortune of the young doctor to be of the class that attended his last course of lectures in the University.
Graduating in the spring of 1813, he returned to Connecticut, and resumed practice. Soon after he received the appointment of surgeon in the State militia, and was ordered into the service of the United States.
In consequence of the dispute between the general government and the State authorities, regarding the right of each to appoint the general and regimental officers in command of the State militia while in the service of the United States, Dr. LEAVENWORTH did not see actual service.
In the few years following the war of 1812, the attention of the young men of the State of Connecticut was turned to the territory west of Pennsylvania, known as "New Connecticut," and in the spring of 1818, Dr. LEAVENWORTH decided to emigrate thither. A large covered wagon was loaded with the necessary outfit and drawn by oxen. The young doctor and his wife bade farewell to home and friends, and began the long and tedious journey. In four weeks they arrived at Batavia, where they halted to rest and recruit the oxen. While sojourning there the doctor became acquainted with the agent of the Holland Land Company, and being interested in land and meeting persons from different parts of the "Purchase," and from representations made of the abundance and quality of the timber and excellence of the soil in Cattaraugus County, he was persuaded to examine it himself. After a tedious journey of about a week with his ox-team through the almost unbroken wilderness, they reached the village of Ellicottville on the 25th of September, 1818. The village then consisted of the public square, the land-office, a tavern, and a few log houses.
He filled many important public offices. In 1823 he was appointed First Judge of the County Courts of Cattaraugus, Jan. 25, 1823, which office he held for ten years, and was succeeded by Judge CHAMBERLAIN. He was one of the committee to superintend the erection of the county buildings at Ellicottville, and commissioner of loans, also commissioner to lay out public roads on the Indian reservation. He was instrumental in procuring from the Holland Land Company an entire surrender of accumulated interest on land contracts, held by them against the early settlers, and was also one of the original founders of the Randolph Academy. In the year 1831 he removed from Ellicottville to Little Valley, and subsequently to Cattaraugus Station, in the town of New Albion, where he passed the remainder of his days.
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